Ocean Plants

A plant that is in the open ocean is algae. Algae is adapted to its enviornment by airbladders, holdfasts, and multi layered cell walls. First off, air bladders are also called swim bladder. Air bladders are air-filled structures that functions to maintain buoyancy, or to aid respiration. This makes it easy for the algae to float in the water and helps the algae be able to breath in the ocean. The holdfasts are organ or structure of attachment, for instance the basal, and that is a root-like formation by which the algae is attached to a substrate. A substrate is where an organism lives. Multi layered cell walls helps the algae from injury. There are 3 parts: middle lamella, primary wall, and secondary wall.  The middle lamella makes the outer wall of the cell. The primary wall is a rigid skeleton. The secondary wall is extremely rigid and provides compresion strength. These are the 3 ways algae adapt to their enviornment.


Kelp is another open ocean plant. One thing kelp has to do is withstand ocean currents. They need to do this so their roots are adapted to dig deep into the rocks and soil to make sure not to drift away. Kelp is adapted to the open ocean by its stipe, with their floats, fronds, and the blades. The stipe is the stem of the plant. As for the floats they are gas-filled compartments that help the blades reach the sunlight at the ocean’s surface. Fronds are the leaves of the kelp. They have to be very strong to hold the amount of water to protect the kelp from drying out. The blade’s job is to catch sunlight for photosynthesis. This is how kelp adapts.


A plant you can find in the ocean is sea grass. When you think of grass you think of it on land but it’s also on the ocean floor. Most land plants can not tolerate even small amounts of salt. Sea grass is adapted to the open ocean by their rhizome; or stem. Blades and roots also help this plant survive. The grass’s blades grow from the rhizome. They are also flexible and bend with the water movement. Roots anchor to the ground and take in dissolved nutrients. The air spaces extending through the rhizome,roots,and blades provide floatation. An interesting animal that eats sea grass is the manatee. This is many herbivores food source. These are the ways sea grass adapts.


Next, a open ocean plant is sargassum. Sargassum is found in temperate and tropical oceans around the world. It inhabits shallow water and coral reefs. If you are wondering what sargassum is it’s a type of genus, brown seaweed. The adpatations of this plant that helps it survive is berrylike gas-filled bladders, rough sticky texture, and being self-fertile. The gas-filled bladders help keep the fronds afloat to promote photosynthesis. Their rough sticky texture helps withstand strong water currents. Being self-fertile helps the sargassum reproduce if seperated from other individuals. This is how sargassum adapts in the ocean.


Phytoplankton is an open ocean plant. Its name means “plant wanderer or drifter”. An interesting fact about this plant is although it is microscopic, they are responsible for much of the oxygen present in the Earth’s atmosphere. Phytoplanton is the primary food source, directly or indirectly, of all ocean organisms. They swim by tiny whip-like flagella. A flagella ia a long, lash-like appendage serving as an organ of locomotion in protozoa, sperm cells,etc. They also adapt by pores and spines. The pores and spines help this plant increase the surface are of the plant itself, reduce the sinking rate, and increase exposure to sunlight for photosynthesis. This is how phytoplankton adapt to the open ocean it lives in.















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